This is an aggregation of all of the recent blog posts of the Case Blog system. The entries are in reverse chronological order according to each entry's last modified date. Persons with questions regarding Planet Case or the Blog system can check the FAQ or email us at blog-admin@case.edu.

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May 10, 2014

Social Work Licensure Review Course Set for September 12

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This course helps participants understand key concepts and prepare for any of the four categories of the social work licensure examination - - Bachelors, Masters, Advanced Generalist, and Clinical.

It assesses previously learned classroom material and refreshes participants' memories if they have been out of school for an extended period of time. The course seeks to help participants feel confident about their knowledge and abilities for taking the exam.

A key feature of the course is that participants study and discuss sample questions.

Presenters:
David Hussey, PhD, LISW-S, Associate Professor
Gerald Strom, MSW, LISW-S, Senior Instructor

The class will meet at Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Center for Community Studies, 11402 Bellflower Rd., on the campus of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH 44106. Nearby covered parking is available.

Fee:
$160 - general $140 - Mandel School alumni $75 - current Mandel School students (6 CEUs)


REGISTER

Register early as seating is limited.

Posted on MSASS PD/CE Online Journal by Nicole Ross Rothstein at 10:46 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

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June 19, 2014

Submit your proposal for the upcoming Digital Scholarship Colloquium: Pedagogy & Practices

The Freedman Center for Digital Scholarship at Kelvin Smith Library will host its annual Digital Scholarship Colloquium on November 6-7, 2014. This year's colloquium will focus on digital research pedagogy and practices in the humanities, sciences and social sciences. Proposals for panels, papers and presentations that address these themes are currently being accepted.

Submission topics may include (but are not limited to) instructional methodologies and strategies for:

  • introducing undergraduate and graduate students to digital tools and methodologies for research (visualization, data mining, scholarly editing, TEI encoding, mapping, analyzing text, managing data, curating data, building digital exhibits/collections)
  • incorporating digital projects into existing course syllabi
  • advising digital dissertations, theses, or capstone projects
  • training students to work on extracurricular projects
  • collaborating with libraries and/or digital scholarship centers
  • training faculty in digital research, project management, and data curation

Please submit 250-word abstracts and technology requirements to Amanda Koziura (amanda.koziura@case.edu) by July 31, 2014. Accepted panels, papers and presentations will be notified by August 15, 2014. Please note that all presenters will be responsible for their own registration and travel costs. For more information visit http://library.case.edu/fccoll.

Posted on KSL News Blog by Hannah Levy at 02:29 PM | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Freedman Center

July 11, 2014

Numbers to Remember for Interlibrary Loan Services

Here are some significant numbers to keep in mind with regard to your interlibrary loan services through Kelvin Smith Library's ILLiad system...

5 -- the number of days before the due date of a loaned ILL item at which you will receive your initial reminder notification; this indicates the window until then at which you are able to request a renewal, provided the item is eligible per the lender's policy.

5 -- the maximum number of articles within the most recent 5 years of an individual publication that we may request on ILL in a single calendar year before copyright becomes an issue; requests in excess of this will then require we assume payment of often exorbitant fees per each document, to compensate the publishers.

7 -- the number of days after which the overdue status of an ILL loan starts to become critical, at which the second of two overdue notifications will be sent out; the first of these will have already been sent out the day after the item's original due date.

10 -- the number of days within which we recommend you pick up an ILL loan after we notify you that it has been received; this is not mandatory, and we will not pull and return items that have not been picked up until they actually become overdue.

14 -- the default number of additional days indicated when you submit a renewal request for an eligible loan; this is the extension we present to the lender library, but their reply may vary according to their own specific policy or local lending circumstances.

14 -- the number of days after which the overdue status of a loan now causes your ILL privileges to become blocked; you will receive an overdue notification to this effect, and functions available in your ILLiad account will be limited until you return any and all loans this many (or more) days past due.

20 -- the number of minutes after which your ILLiad online session times out, if no keystroke activity is detected; we recommend that you refresh your session regularly by clicking on the "(Your) ILLiad Page" link at the top of the Main Menu list.

30 -- the maximum number of viewing days available for electronically delivered articles; after this period, aged document files become deleted from the server during ILLiad's next scheduled automatic clean-up session.

60 -- the maximum number of days we will hold a printed article (or other non-returnable item) supplied through interlibrary loan; as we rely almost exclusively on electronic delivery, this will apply only to special instances agreed upon by ILL staff, on a case-by-case basis and with requisite justification.

We hope this information will help guide you in your use of ILLiad and ILL services. If you have questions or concerns, please contact ILL staff, by phone at (216) 368-3463 or (216) 368-3517, or by e-mail at smithill@case.edu. Detailed information about interlibrary loan services and policies that might well answer your questions can also be found at our Customer Help page.

Posted on Carl's ILLiad Blog by Carl Mariani at 02:08 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Features | Policies | Recommendations | Services

July 10, 2014

Campus in July

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Campus in summer, 1972

Many consider July the quietest month on campus - classes are not in session, people go on vacation, not many major events are held. But there’s a, perhaps, surprising amount of activity during this quiet month.

University staff with finance responsibilities are busy closing the books on the just-ended fiscal year. As the Archives is located in the same buidling as the Controller’s Office, we see them in the halls. I would never describe my colleagues as haggard, but there are signs that some of these folks may be putting in long hours. Faculty are planning fall classes, writing and continuing their research. Most of us are doing annual reports. Many of us are catching up on projects postponed from the previous academic year or getting ready for the coming academic year.

Many changes take effect in July, especially July 1, the start of the new fiscal year. Case Western Reserve University was created July 1, 1967. The Colleges, combining the undergraduate colleges Western Reserve College and Case Institute of Technology, was created July 1, 1987. It was “uncreated” five years later, again on July 1, when it was separated into the College of Arts and Sciences and the Case School of Engineering.

July often has seen the start of campus building and renovation projects. In 1985 the first phase renovation of the Emerson Physical Education Center, later renamed the Veale Convocation, Recreation and Athletic Center, started in July. Smaller projects have also been done: restoration of the windows of Amasa Stone Chapel in 1999, installation of the clock on the exterior of the Biomedical Research Building in 1992. Although, it may not be accurate to characterize a 16-foot tall, one-ton clock as a small project.

Major initiatives are frequently announced in July, even though they begin months later. Both the first and final phases of CWRU’s no smoking policies were announced in July - in 1987 and 1989. CWRU’s campus-wide Community Service Day, scheduled in September, was announced in July 2003.

Although fewer in number than during, say, April, events large and small have been held in July. In the 19th century, Commencement was often in July. More recently Party on the Quad has usually been held in July. In 1988 stamp collectors gathered on campus in July for the unveiling of a stamp honoring Dr. Harvey W. Cushing.

I’ve become more aware of these events recently as I’ve begun tweeting what I think of as Days in the Life of CWRU. It has been something of a challenge to find events for every day in July, and some days defeated me. My goal is to share some event during the university’s life for as many days as possible in the next year. The University’s history is not the sole property of the University Archives, of course, so I hope others will join in - #cwruhistory.

Posted on Recollections from the Archives by Jill Tatem at 02:49 PM | Comments (76) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Events and Activities

July 07, 2014

Caregivers of terminal cancer patients say they can emotionally manage end-of-life treatment and decisions with help from support team, Case Western Reserve University nurse researchers find


News Release: July 7, 2014


Many caregivers of terminal cancer patients suffer depression and report regret and guilt from feeling they could have done more to eliminate side effects and relieve the pain.

So researchers from the nursing school at Case Western Reserve University devised and tested an intervention that quickly integrates a cancer support team to guide caregivers and their patients through difficult end-of-life treatment and decisions.

In the study, caregivers reported a high degree of satisfaction from having a team comprised of an advance practice nurse, social worker, a spiritual advisor and the patient’s oncologist explain what was happening and why during the dying process.

The positive outcomes of having a support team inform and allow caregivers and their patients an opportunity to think through what was important and what actions to take as the disease progressed are reported in the July issue of Oncology Nursing Forum. The National Institute of Nursing Research and the National Cancer Institute (grant: NR018717) funded the study.

The intervention’s support team got involved in end-of-life conversations with the patient and caregiver at the first diagnosis of a late-stage cancer.

In the past, many of those conversations started too late—days or weeks before the patient died, said Sara Douglas, PhD, RN, associate professor at Case Western Reserve’s Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing and lead author.

“We owe it to the patients and caregivers to start earlier and think the choices through,” said Douglas, who conducted the research with CWRU colleague and principal investigator, Barbara Daly, PhD, RN, FAAN, professor of nursing.

The methodology

• Their intervention concept follows a larger study of 610 advanced cancer patients and their caregivers at Case Medical Center-Seidman Cancer Center in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2012.

• From that study, the researchers analyzed data from 106 caregivers with loved ones who died from lung, gastrointestinal or gynecological cancers. They were divided into two groups: one who had received the cancer support team and one without the additional support.

• For those who received the cancer support team, a member of the team checked in with the caregiver monthly to answer questions and discuss the patient’s care and progress. At any time the caregiver had concerns, the team was available.

• Studied over 15 months, participants were asked about their mood and social supports when recruited, and again at three, nine and 15 months to gauge whether the intervention made a difference in their moods, social support and satisfaction with end-of-life care. They were also questioned after their loved one died about the patient’s care in the last week of life.

• Neither group showed changes in mood and feelings of social support. But caregivers with the aid of the cancer support team showed a higher satisfaction with end-of-life care in five areas: pain relief, managing pain, speed in treating symptoms, information about side effects and coordination of care.

The measureable benefit to grieving families of having had access to comprehensive support prior to the death of their loved one reinforces the need to include families in cancer care, Douglas said. The researchers contend support services targeting psychosocial needs of patients and families should be incorporated as routine adjuncts to cancer-directed therapy, and that this type of team-oriented approach is an effective means to do so.

“The perception that the caregiver’s loved one was well cared for can have long-term benefits in easing possible regrets that may occur after someone has died,” Douglas said.

These findings will be shared with the oncology clinical community.



Posted on Think by Susan Griffith at 02:37 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Official Release

July 01, 2014

Clot-building nanoparticles raise survival rate following blast trauma


July 1, 2014


CLEVELAND—A type of artificial platelet being developed to help natural blood platelets form clots faster offers promise for saving the lives of soldiers, as well as victims of car crashes and other severe trauma.

In preclinical tests led by a Case Western Reserve University researcher, the artificial platelets, called “hemostatic nanoparticles,” when injected after blast trauma dramatically increased survival rates and showed no signs of interfering with healing or causing other complications weeks afterward.

“The nanoparticles have a huge impact on survival—not just in the short term, but in the long term,” said Erin Lavik, an associate professor of biomedical engineering at Case Western Reserve. Other researchers had raised concerns that the foreign matter would interfere with healing, or form free-floating clots, but “we saw none of that.”

The research, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week, show the survival rate of mice models of blast trauma treated with the nanoparticles increased to 95, compared to 60 percent for those untreated. The release can be found at: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/06/25/1406979111.full.pdf.

Also, no unwanted side effects, such as accumulation of the nanoparticles, clot formation or aberrant healing, were found during examinations one ands three weeks after the injection.

Lavik worked with Margaret M. Lashof-Sullivan, Erin Shoffstall and Kristyn T. Atkins, of Case Western Reserve; Nickolas Keane and Cynthia Bir of Wayne State University and Pamela VandeVord of Virginia Tech.

Explosions account for 79 percent of combat-related injuries and are the leading cause of battlefield deaths, according to researchers at Veterans Affairs hospitals and the federally run Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

The primary blast wave, flying shrapnel and being thrown to the ground cause the lungs, liver, kidneys and other organs to hemorrhage and bleed uncontrollably.

Such uncontrolled bleeding from collisions, blows and falls is also the leading cause of death among victims age 5 to 44 in the United States.

Natural blood platelets are the key ingredient to stopping bleeding, a process called hemostasis. The process works well for typical cuts and scrapes, but can be overwhelmed with serious injuries.

Hospitals try to stem internal bleeding by giving trauma patients blood products or the hemophilia medicine called recombinant factor VIIa, but there isn’t a good option for the battlefield or accident scenes. Recombinant factor VIIa must be refrigerated, costs up to tens of thousands of dollars per treatment and can cause clots in brain and spinal cord injuries, which are common from explosions.

Lavik’s team has fine-tuned the nanoparticles to increase clotting efficiency. “They are incredibly simple… spheres with arms of peptides that react with activated blood platelets in damaged tissues to help clots form more quickly,” she said.

The particles are made from short polymer chains already approved for other uses by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In earlier testing, rat models injected with the nanoparticles stopped bleeding faster than untreated models.

The dry particles remained viable after two weeks on a shelf. A medic in the field or an ambulance crew would add saline, shake and inject them, the researchers say.

Further research and testing are underway. Clinical trials on humans are likely at least five years out, Lavik said.

The research was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense Grant W81XWH-11-2-0014 and the National Institutes of Health Director’s New Innovator Award DP20D007338.



Posted on Think by Kevin Mayhood at 05:54 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Official Release

July 01, 2014

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Weatherhead School of Management to offer dual degrees in biomedical sciences and business

New graduate degrees a response to career opportunities created by changes in health care




News Release: Tuesday, July 1, 2014



To prepare students for increasing job opportunities generated by the changing health care environment, Case Western Reserve University’s School of Medicine and Weatherhead School of Management are offering two new dual graduate degrees that combine the fields of biomedical science and management.

The new dual degree programs—MBA/MS in Biochemistry and MBA/MS in Medical Physiology—start in the 2014-15 academic year. The curriculum is designed so students can complete the required coursework in three years for the MBA/MS in Biochemistry, and 2½ years for the MBA/MS Medical in Physiology.

The new dual degrees target an increasingly vital space in the job market, where translational science and business share common ground.

“Anybody with this dual degree is going to be extraordinarily marketable,” said Professor Thomas M. Nosek in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, who helped orchestrate the new programs.
Nosek and Biochemistry Professor William Merrick each met with Associate Professor Simon Peck, in Weatherhead School of Management’s Department of Design & Innovation, to design the dual degrees. Peck is Weatherhead’s associate dean for MBA programs.

Merrick expects the dual degree to open career possibilities for biochemistry students seeking options outside of medical school, and for future medical students who realize studying business management will be valuable long-term.

“In our program,” Merrick said, “you can blend the study of bioscience and an MBA very easily. I see this as another opportunity for our students to enhance what they want to do.”

Peck said graduate students in physiology and biochemistry might be interested in entrepreneurship, the pharmaceutical industry and a range of other health-care business possibilities “that make a link-up with an MBA program a no-brainer.”

Peck said the new degree offerings are a direct response to a dynamic health-care environment. Ongoing changes are spawning:

 A growth in medical entrepreneurship and startups.
 Expansion in the medical device industry.
 A need for health care consulting.
 Demand for biomedical/business management, as the nation adapts to the Affordable Care Act.

Dual degrees are more efficient, as they allow students to complete both degrees simultaneously rather than separately. As a result, some credit hours in each program can count as electives in the other. This sharing of credits means students often earn two degrees a year earlier than they could otherwise.

The MBA/MS in Medical Physiology also offers an alternative for the first year, in which students can take the medical/science coursework online.

The dual degree option allows MBA students at the Weatherhead School the ability to enhance their professional credentials with science courses usually reserved for biomedical studies, once prerequisites for the sciences coursework are satisfied.

Capitalizing on Cleveland’s position as a global center for large research hospitals and biomedical startups, the Weatherhead School also offers a master’s degree in health care management as an evening program for working professionals.


Posted on Think by Marvin Kropko at 05:18 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Official Release

July 01, 2014

June 2014 Issue now online

our June issue is now online at:
www.thecdt.org

Continue reading "June 2014 Issue now online"

Posted on Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy by Paul Schoenhagen at 01:34 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Announcement

June 25, 2014

CameraLends - peer-to-peer camera rental

On January 1, 2014, I left my full-time job to pursue my year-long side project. CameraLends is a peer-to-peer camera rental community. If you're familiar with Airbnb, it's a pretty similar concept. If you have camera gear that you don't use all the time (and who does!) then slap those pricy puppies on CameraLends so that others can rent it from you. Or, if you're a [hopeful] photographer, you can hop onto the site and rent gear from local photographers. Because our inventory is people powered, you have the option to do 1-day rentals (something most camera shops won't let you do) and make last minute requests. Basically, whatever the lender and renter can agree upon is kosher with us.

Worried about damage, you say? As a lender, you shouldn't be -- CameraLends has you fully covered in the case of damage. And as a lender, you can purchase a damage waiver for 15% of your reservation that covers up to $2500 worth of damage.

And Cleveland is on the map! List your gear and start earning money today!

Posted on Adam Derewecki by Adam Derewecki at 05:47 PM | Comments (34) | TrackBack (0)

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May 12, 2014

CEU Classes for July and August

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Mandel School's Summer 2014 CEU offerings provide fresh learning for licensed human services and nonprofit professionals.


ethics and supervision remain mainstays of these offerings available at the Mandel School as well as the west-side in Westlake.

Classes are offered primarily on Fridays but also Saturday to accommodate busy work schedules.

See a list of upcoming seminars here.

Posted on MSASS PD/CE Online Journal by Michele Murphy at 11:30 AM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

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June 23, 2014

ILL Books May Become Part of the KSL Collections

In case you weren't aware, some of the materials we borrow as "loans" for ILL requests are actually purchased for our retention, and may eventually be incorporated into the collections of the Kelvin Smith Library system.

Occasionally, we take advantage of certain services by various suppliers who provide us with "non-returnable" book purchases as an alternate form of interlibrary loan transaction. Alibris, Better World Books, and some other vendors offer an option to supply these items via the regular ILL request process. Sometimes, we are also able to obtain reproductions of theses and dissertations from the libraries of the respective granting institutions through ILL, when such titles cannot be lent and are not available for purchase from UMI ProQuest. Once in a great while, we may receive an offer to have very rare items--usually held only at individual foreign libraries--reproduced in print, CD-ROM, or other physical form.

Once we receive these, we process them in ILLiad as loan-type transactions, and will assign them an arbitrary but reasonable due date. Along with this, we will specify that they are allowed unlimited renewals (which will be documented in the "Notes" field for the request and be visible to the user).

What, you may ask, do we do with them after you're finished using them? Well, our normal procedure is to complete the request transactions in ILLiad (as there is no "return" process involved), and then submit the items to the appropriate subject area Research Services Librarian for consideration to be added to our own collections. In many cases they do actually become included, if it is determined they will be useful for the research interests of future library patrons (likely including the original requester). However, sometimes a granting institution library will specify that a reproduced thesis or dissertation may only be used once (by the requesting patron) for ILL purposes, and then must be discarded and not be added to any collections--as a condition of the original service agreement. Usually, in such a case the requester is also required to sign a declaration form, to confirm the title will only be used for scholarly purposes and assure it will be properly cited.

Well, we hope this information is helpful (or at least somewhat enlightening) to your understanding of part of the interlibrary loan service.

Posted on Carl's ILLiad Blog by Carl Mariani at 03:02 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Recommendations | Services

June 23, 2014

View new issue of KSL Connects!

For the past three years, Kelvin Smith Library's strategic plan has been the road map guiding efforts related to all aspects of our mission. From leading a campus-wide effort to deliver improved digital scholarship services, making our special collections more accessible, creating state-of-the-art facilities and hosting educational events, the Spring/Summer 2014 issue of KSL Connects takes you through our journey to be the knowledge and creativity commons of Case Western Reserve University. Browse our online edition today to learn more about the programs, services and people that are building new directions for Kelvin Smith Library.

View the magazine online today: library.case.edu/ksl/connects

Continue reading "View new issue of KSL Connects!"

Posted on KSL News Blog by Hannah Levy at 10:31 AM | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Events & News @KSL

June 19, 2014

Fall groundbreaking for first phase of expanded think[box] announced at White House “National Day of Making”


June 19, 2014


CLEVELAND—Case Western Reserve will break ground this fall on the first phase of a seven-story, 50,000 square-foot innovation hub designed to give visitors the space, technology and expert advice to imagine, prototype and, if they are so inclined, transform their creations into actual products.
 
The White House announced the university’s plans Wednesday as part of the administration’s National Day of Making, a celebration of America’s historic embrace of invention, whether it emerges from a tinkerer’s basement or a company’s research facility. Case Western Reserve’s initiative was among three the administration highlighted; the others were at Carnegie Mellon University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In addition, Case School of Engineering Dean Jeffrey Duerk will join President Barack Obama and leaders from higher education and business later this morning for the first annual National Maker’s Faire at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.

Case Western Reserve’s Think[box} is a $30 million project for which the university so far has raised nearly $20 million from about 70 donors. The strong outpouring of support has allowed planners to accelerate the start of construction by breaking the project into two phases. As a result, students and other users will benefit from the much larger and well-stocked space while fundraising for the second phase continues.

The concept’s promise has been Illustrated powerfully through the pilot effort known as think[box] 1.0, a 4,500 square-foot basement space featuring equipment ranging from 3-D printers and circuit-board routers to laser cutters and a 32-square foot ShopBot—a computer-controlled device that cuts, drills, carves and more.
 
Opened in 2012, think[box] 1.0 has drawn 50,000 visits in the past 18 months and served as the incubator for several student start-ups, among them companies marketing a fuel-cell powered bicycle and reusable rockets. The pilot space is open to students, faculty, staff and members of the public.

Funding the effort

Generous support from accomplished alumni and area business leaders launched the pilot project and continued to drive enthusiasm—and donations—to the larger project.
 
Alumni Larry and Sally Sears, who committed $5.9 million to create an undergraduate lab for electrical engineering students, committed $5 million to create think[box]. Larry Sears founded Hexagram, an Ohio company that developed wireless meter-readers for utility companies.
 
Alumnus Barry Romich, co-founder of the Prentke Romich Co., a maker of devices that help people with speech disabilities to communicate, donated $2 million.
 
A. Malachi Mixon, chairman of the board of Invacare, and J.B. Richey, another alumnus and Mixon’s friend and colleague, donated $5 million. Richey created the first full-body CAT scan.

In addition, the State of Ohio this spring approved an award of $1 million to support the project.

The facility will be open to faculty, staff and students at the university and all other institutions in University Circle, as well as K-12 students, entrepreneurial groups and the public.
 
Expanding  opportunities
 
Created to support ideas, innovation and design, the new think[box] will add meeting and workspace, manufacturing equipment and experts to help guide users. The project involves renovation of the former Lincoln Storage building on campus, and its first phase includes:

 ·      Floor 1: Community; interactive presentation and workshop areas, an inventors hall of fame, social meeting spaces and more to support a range of activities focusing on users from outside the university, including K-12, students, industry groups and community groups.

 ·      Floor 2: Collaboration; open space to support generation and development of ideas. A range of informal, re-configurable spaces for users to meet, think and develop their ideas. Will include multi-media equipment to support group collaboration and expression.

 ·      Floor 3: Prototyping; A wide range of state-of-the-art digital manufacturing equipment for users to quickly turn their ideas into some form of physical object.

 ·     Floor 4: Fabrication; traditional fabrication/manufacturing workshops.

In addition to the work on these floors, the project’s first phase also includes construction of a bridge from the university’s Veale Convocation, Recreation and Athletic Center to the building’s second floor. Construction is expected to take between 12 and 16 months.

The second phase will include a large, garage-style project floor; a floor devoted to start-up assistance, including business planning, intellectual property and legal advice; and a floor for incubating start-up companies that develop both within and outside the university.
 
The university will announce the precise date and time of the groundbreaking later this summer.


Posted on Think by Kevin Mayhood at 06:27 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Official Release

June 19, 2014

Nearby satellite galaxies don’t fit standard model

Structure, behavior better explained by galaxy collisions


June 19, 2014


CLEVELAND—Satellite dwarf galaxies at the edges of the Milky Way and neighboring Andromeda defy the accepted model of galaxy formation, and recent attempts to pigeon-hole them into the model are flawed, an international team of scientists reports.

The mismatch raises questions about the accuracy of the standard model of cosmology, which is the widely accepted paradigm for the origin and evolution of the universe, the astrophysicists say.

A preprint of the research paper, accepted for publication by the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, is online at http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.1799.

The standard model, also called the “lambda cold dark matter model,” says that satellite dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way and Andromeda are expected to behave a certain way: The galaxies would form in halos of dark matter, be widely distributed and would have to move in random directions, said Marcel Pawlowski, a postdoctoral researcher in the astronomy department at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of the new study.

“But what astronomers see is different,” Pawlowski said. “We see the satellite galaxies are in a huge disk and moving in the same direction within this disk, like the planets in our solar system moving in a thin plane in one direction around the sun. That’s unexpected and could be a real problem.”

In the Milky Way, the dwarf galaxies and accompanying star clusters and streams of stars are in what’s called the Magellanic plane, or what the authors call the Vast Polar Structure; and in Andromeda, half of the satellites are in the Great Plane of Andromeda.

Pawlowski and 13 co-authors from six different countries examined three recent papers by different international teams that concluded the planar distributions of galaxies fit the standard model.

“When we compared simulations using their data to what is observed by astronomers, we found a very substantial mismatch,” Pawlowski said.

With computers, the researchers simulated mock observations of thousands of Milky Ways using the same data as the three previous papers. They found just one of a few thousand simulations matched what astronomers actually observe around the Milky Way.

“But we also have Andromeda,” Pawlowski said. “The chance to have two galaxies with such huge disks of satellite galaxies is less than one in 100,000.”

When the researchers corrected for flaws they say they found in the three studies, they could not reproduce the findings made in the respective papers.

“The standard model contains various putative ingredients— such as dark matter and dark energy —which were introduced because the model wasn’t consistent with observations,” said Benoit Famaey, a senior research associate at the University of Strasbourg in France, and co-author of the study.

Famaey and the other authors are among a small but growing number of astrophysicists who find the standard model fails to replicate what’s observed and therefore they seek alternatives.

Dark matter is thought to be an as-yet undetected matter that provides galaxies with enough mass to prevent the speed of their rotation from pulling them apart. If present, the unseen cloud of matter would be extremely unlikely to result in the planar structures seen.

The authors suggest an alternative and older explanation for the satellite dwarf galaxies: a collision between two galaxies. The collision may have ripped material from the galaxies and thrown it a great distance, much like tides on Earth. The resulting tidal dwarf galaxies are formed from the debris.

“Standard galaxies must contain dark matter, but tidal galaxies cannot contain dark matter,” said Pavel Kroupa, a co-author of the study and a professor at the University of Bonn in Germany. “There’s a very serious conflict, and the repercussion is we do not seem to have the correct theory of gravity”

The group will continue to study tidal dwarf galaxies and whether another alternative to the standard model—modified gravity—fits what they observe.

The researchers say science may initially balk at the premise but has historically embraced challenges to accepted theories, and for good reason.

“When you have a clear contradiction like this, you ought to focus on it,” said David Merritt, professor of astrophysics at Rochester Institute of Technology and co-author of the new study. “This is how progress in science is made.”


Posted on Think by Kevin Mayhood at 02:06 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

Entry is tagged: Official Release

June 19, 2014

CWRU engineer to grow replacement tissue for torn rotator cuffs

Coaxing adult stem cells into tendons





June 19, 2014



CLEVELAND—A Case Western Reserve University engineer has won a $1.7 million National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant to grow replacement rotator cuffs and other large tendon groups to help heal injured soldiers and athletes, accident victims and an aging population that wants to remain active.

Ozan Akkus, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, has already devised a technique to reconstitute collagen—a building block of tendons—into tough fibers and induce adult stem cells to grow into tendons on those fibers.

“This is a concept that works on a lab bench,” Akkus said. “We will refine the concept and test the validity on an animal model.”

“Following completion of that, we may be in position for clinical applications,” he continued.

Tendons are the sinew that tie muscle to bone, enabling us to push and pull, run and jump or, in the case of the rotator cuff, throw a ball or a mundane task such as reaching up to a shelf. But the cuff is susceptible to wear and damage.

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons reports that nearly 200,000 Americans require shoulder surgery to repair damaged rotator cuffs annually. The failure rate for repairs exceeds 20 percent, with the rate being highest for the largest tears.

A better fix

“A simple detachment, doctors suture back in place,” Akkus said. “But if the body or bulk of the tendon is damaged and there is not enough tendon to reattach, we need to regenerate bulk volume of the tendon.”

To achieve that, the NIH grant will allow Akkus and a team of doctors and researchers to conduct basic science and translational work during the next five years.

At the heart of tendons is collagen, which is in skin, teeth, bones and ligaments of many species and is therefore accepted by the immune system. But, “normally, when you reconstitute collagen, it’s as strong as Jell-O,” Akkus said. “For a tendon, that’s not an option.”

His lab uses electrical currents to align collagen threads, mimicking the natural tendon and making the threads dense and strong as a tendon. And his team can make threads in bulk, which would enable manufacturers to make spools of the material—enough to accommodate hundreds of thousands of surgeries.

Woven threads are sufficiently strong to be surgically handled and sutured in place and be fully load-bearing, Akkus said. “This would enable a patient to begin physical therapy and remobilization quickly,” he said.

Growing tendon tissue

The threads alone could be used as sutures to repair simple tears. But when more tendon material is needed, adult mesenchymal stem cells placed on the aligned collagen differentiate toward tendon cells without highly regulated growth factors, which also carry undesirable side effects or other chemicals.

Akkus’ lab will investigate why differentiation occurs and whether other factors, such as mechanical stress, may further induce the stem cells to develop into tendon.

They will also test whether mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow could complete a repair. They will drill holes in bone, tie collagen scaffolds through the holes and try to coax stem cells to spread over the scaffold and grow.

If this fails, they will seed cells on a scaffold in a petri dish and allow them to grow for a few weeks before implanting the biomaterial.

The researchers believe the technology will be useful for more than tendons. For example, mesh sheets woven with controlled pore size and geometry could be used to repair hernias or urinary incontinence. Sheets of collagen could be cast in molds of an ear or nose, for replacements for patients who suffered trauma or devastating tumors.

In his tendon project, Akkus is working with graduate research assistants Mousa Younesi and Anowarul Islam. He is collaborating with James M. Anderson, professor of pathology at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine and assistant professor Robert Gillespie, orthopedic surgeon at University Hospitals Case Medical Center. Denitsa Docheva, the leader of the "TENDON" Research Group, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany is consulted on the biology of stem cells and tendon cells. Three more faculty on staff at University Hospitals Case Medical Center are involved in other applications of the technology developed in Akkus’ Lab: associate professor Adonis Hijaz, urologist; and assistant professors Chad Zender and Rod Rezaee, otolaryngologists.



Posted on Think by Kevin Mayhood at 01:15 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

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June 16, 2014

New Special Collections Exhibits at KSL

spcoll_ex_summer2014.jpg Be sure to check out KSL's new special collections exhibits! "The Alice Project" and "Science Fiction & Fantasy" are on display now in the library's (first floor) art gallery, and "The Giving Tradition" is on display in the Hatch Reading Room (second floor). The exhibits are free and open to the public during regular business hours.

The Alice Project: Last year, students of the Cleveland Institute of Art’s Illustration Department were inspired by a local book collector's exceptional collection of illustrated Lewis Carroll books. The resulting project was a book, Alice, which contains new illustrations to Lewis Carroll’s works by the students. The book and prints of the students’ work are displayed in the gallery, and additional student works can be found on display throughout the library.

Science Fiction & Fantasy: Kelvin Smith Library holds an incredibly rich collection that includes pulp serials and novels, fanzines, and first editions from the most respected authors in the genres. The collection has been built by several generous donors over the past forty years, including Francis Barry Keefe, Robert Plank, and Richard K. Wiersba. With a nod to the roots of fan culture on campus, the display also includes images of CWRU people and events that serve as inspiration to the creators of fictional realms.

The Giving Tradition: The rare book collection of a research university nearly two centuries old is the product of many minds. Scholars, librarians, collectors, and dedicated faculty have all played key parts in creating Case Western Reserve University’s special collections. The Giving Tradition highlights the contributions of a range of individuals and organizations whose books and documents have come together across time and location to form much of the Kelvin Smith Library rare book collection. Click here to explore the exhibit online!


For more information, contact KSLspecialcollections@case.edu.

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June 16, 2014

new e-book online

check:
http://www.thecdt.org/ebooks/cdt-v4n1/index.html

Posted on Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy by Paul Schoenhagen at 03:17 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

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June 13, 2014

Student Traditions - Mr. CWRU

“I never knew how much fun a male beauty pageant could be... ” - Michael Dennison was quoted by the 1999 Retrospect in its coverage of the Mr. CWRU pageant. Sigma Psi sorority has sponsored the annual event since 1979.

Contestants, sponsored by residence halls, fraternities and sororities and other campus organizations, competed in swimwear, formal wear, and talent categories. Finalists answered the kinds of probing questions typical of beauty pageants. A panel of judges determined the winner. Prizes were also given for Mr. Macho, Mr. Congeniality, Mr. Photogenic, First Runner-Up, and Second Runner-Up. Within a few years a category was added for costumes representative of the sponsoring organization (e.g., the Sherman Tank for Sherman House).

From photographs published in the student yearbooks, the swim wear modeled was typically abbreviated. A notable exception was the diver’s wet suit donned by Gary Butchko in 1990.

Contests had themes including “Whatta Man” (1994), “A Good Man is Hard to Find” (1995), “Looking for the Next 007” (1997), “Unmasking the Men” (2002), “One Singular Sensation of Men” (2003).

Talents on display have included singing, dancing, poetry recitation, comedy routines, a blues rendition of Dr. Seuss’s Green Eggs and Ham, and juggling. One of the more esoteric talents was Tom Thole’s creation of a painting composed of applesauce, grape jelly, spaghetti, and baked beans commemorating the Michelson-Morley Centennial. Candidates have solved Rubix Cubes (in less than 2 minutes), written computer programming code, and set their hands on fire.

Proceeds have benefitted charities including Big Brother/Big Sister program, Ronald McDonald House, Environmental Health Watch, Project Step-Up, the Cleveland Free Clinic, the Cleveland Rape Crisis Center, and many others.

MrCWRU_1980.jpg
Mr. CWRU pageant, 1980. Vis a Vis, 1981

Below are some of our Mr. CWRUs and their sponsors

1979 - Scott Elliot, Cleveland Institute of Music
1980 - David Brockett, Cleveland Institute of Music
1981 - Mel Jones, Jr., Phi Delta Theta
1982 - Pirooz Pazirandeh, Delta Tau Delta
1983 - Eric Schneider, Sigma Chi
1984 - Doug Christenson
1985 - Joe Waked
1986 - Chris DeHaas, Theta Chi
1987 - John Pickens, Sigma Chi Little Sisters
1989 - Curtis Duncan, Sigma Alpha Mu
1990 - Andrew Hlabse, Zeta Beta Tau
1992 - Steve Pieniak, Sigma Tau
1994 - Mike Chandler, Sigma Alpha Mu
1995 - Mark Jordan, Sigma Alpha Mu
1996 - Emeka Ofobike
1997 - Keith Hovey, Delta Tau Delta
1998 - Nestor Colon, Zeta Beta Tau
2000 - Bill Darnieder
2001 - Adam Evans, Phi Kappa Tau
2002 - Herman Bagga, Phi Mu
2003 - Pete Ritchie, Delta Tau Delta
2004 - Tony Huspaska, Delta Gamma
2005 - Matt Whilden
2010 - David Holcomb, Beta Theta Pi

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June 05, 2014

Dentists and patients benefit from better care by analyzing strengths and weaknesses of evidence-based dental studies


News Release: June 5, 2014



Dental medicine has joined the fields of medicine, nursing, psychology, social work and others to develop evidence-based practices that are the gold standards of patient care, according to a Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine researcher.

Evidence-based practices evolve from studies that collect and analyze data to understand what does or doesn’t work.

These practices go beyond observations or theories, and are backed by scientific research data to support how best to treat patients, said Leena Palomo, DDS, MSD, associate professor of periodontics.

The Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice reviews and publishes original research articles as well as critical reviews of published articles. The journal’s editors invited Palomo, a researcher and practicing periodontist, to contribute an analysis of the Journal of Dental Research (JDR) article, “Body mass index as a predictive factor of periodontal therapy outcomes.”

According to Dr. Scott L. Tomar, the journal’s senior associate editor and a professor at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, the journal selects experts in the subject matter to review the results and strength of evidence.

“Our goal in publishing critical reviews of journal articles is to give busy clinicians a brief synopsis and help them assess its strengths and weaknesses in deciding whether or not to incorporate its findings into clinical decision-making,” Tomar said.

The article Palomo reviewed explored findings from a group of studies about people with severe gum disease. Data from five studies conducted during a seven-year period by the UCL Eastman Dental Institute in London were used in that analysis. The JDR article pulled data for 260 participants to determine whether a link existed among obesity, gum disease and poor outcomes after the patients received nonsurgical dental treatments.

Palomo used evidence-based standards to see if the study met three goals:

• Citing and discussing findings from other studies that relate to the new research;
• Organizing in a standardized way that reports the hypothesis or purpose of the study, the research method and includes a discussion and conclusion about the findings and what they mean, and;
• Focusing on qualitative outcomes, disregarding intuition or unsupported theories.

Palomo reports both strong and weak factors in her analysis in the June issue of the Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice article, “BMI is a Predictor of Periodontal Therapy.”

Palomo considered it a weakness that researchers used only four of the five databases from the studies to reach their conclusion, and that the information was second-hand, not original data.

She also pointed out the databases lacked information about whether the participants smoked or had other health issues, which might confound the outcome for treating the gum disease.

But overall, she concluded, the message is strong that a link exists between obesity and gum disease.

Palomo said dentists can use this information to suggest to overweight patients that they follow up with a physician about weight-related health conditions that might interfere with treating and curing gum disease.

“My conclusion after reviewing was that although the above conclusion is consistent with emerging studies, this one study alone is not sufficient evidence for clinicians to be able to attribute poor results of periodontal therapy to obesity alone,” she said.  “More well-controlled studies are needed for this information to translate to chairside utilization.”  

These analyses are particularly important for practicing dentists who generally treat patients instead of conducting research, she said. Conversely, many researchers are in the lab instead of chairside with patients.

Both the researcher and practicing dentist can benefit from understanding one another’s processes and how research can drive changes in patient care, she said.


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June 05, 2014

What does it mean to be humane?

Research shows compassion and euthanasia don’t always jibe

June 5, 2014


CLEVELAND—New research from Case Western Reserve University found that compassion can produce counterintuitive results, challenging prevailing views of empathy’s effects on moral judgment.

To understand how humans make moral choices, researchers asked subjects to respond to a variety of moral dilemmas, for instance: Whether to stay and defend a mortally wounded soldier until he dies or shoot him to protect him from enemy torture and enable you and five other soldiers to escape unharmed.

Leading research has said people make choices based on a struggle within their brains between thoughtful reason and automatic passion.

“But this simple reason versus passion model fails to capture that there’s a refined way of thinking with emotions, closely related to empathy and compassion,” said Anthony Jack, Director of Research at the Inamori International Center for Ethics and Excellence, associate professor of cognitive science, psychology and philosophy at Case Western Reserve and lead author of the new research.

Co-authors are Philip Robbins, of the department of philosophy at the University of Missouri, Jared P. Friedman, who just graduated with a BA in cognitive science and philosophy from Case Western Reserve, and Chris D. Meyers, of the department of philosophy at the University of Southern Mississippi. Their study is published in the journal Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Mind at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/us/advances-in-experimental-philosophy-of-mind-9781472507334/.

The researchers agree that there are two networks in the brain that fight to guide our moral decisions, but say that leading work, by Joshua Greene at Harvard University, mischaracterizes the networks involved and how they operate.

A new model

“There’s a tension between cold hard reasoning—what’s called analytic reasoning— and another type of reasoning important to emotions, self-regulation and social insight,” Jack explained. “The second type of reasoning isn’t characterized by being caught up in reflexive and primitive emotions, as Greene suggests. It’s critically important to understanding and appreciating the experiential point of view of others.”

Using functional magnetic resonance imagers (fMRI), Jack has found that the human brain has an analytic network and an empathetic network that tend to suppress one another.

For example, in a healthy brain, physics problems activate the analytic network and deactivate the empathetic. Meanwhile, videos or stories that put a subject in the shoes of another activate the empathetic network and deactivate the analytic.

In these studies, students from Case Western Reserve and groups of adults recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk responded to a series of questions about themselves and their views. They were then asked to make choices about a series of moral conundrums.

Among the conundrums were questions involving euthanasia. The respondents clearly made different choices between actions taken for a suffering dog versus a suffering person.

Counterintuitive

“For humans, we privilege their autonomy or life spirit over their basic emotions, such as how much pain they’re in. In contrast, our view of non-human animals tends to be more reductive – we see them as little more than their emotions” Jack said.

“Even though people talk about euthanasia with animals as the humane thing to do, people who are more empathetic have the greatest opposition to euthanasia involving a human,” he said.

Subjects were presented scenarios that included passive euthanasia, such as halting medical intervention, and active euthanasia, such as assisting in the subject’s death.

“More compassionate people didn’t think euthanasia was appropriate for humans, even when we told them the person would be in pain for the rest of his or her life,” Jack said. “That is surprising, because the way we measure compassion is to assess how much people are concerned by the suffering of others.”

Here again, the researchers argue, Greene’s model falls short. According to Greene, those who oppose utilitarian thinking (e.g., euthanasia), should have higher levels of reflexive, primitive, raw emotion Instead, the researchers found that those who were more susceptible to personal distress were actually more likely to support euthanasia.

Opposition to utilitarian thinking was predicted specifically by compassion, not by measures of primitive or reflexive emotion. “Our culture often paints empathy as weakness,” Jack said, “Greene’s model plays into that view, suggesting that those who don’t like utilitarian thinking are intellectually weak and ruled by primitive passions. But these views are fundamentally misleading. Compassion is actually linked to stronger emotion regulation abilities. Decades of research shows that we have to overcome our reflexive feelings of aversion and distress to be ready and willing to help others.”

The researchers found that people judged to be more compassionate and empathetic by their peers – for instance better listeners - tended to oppose utilitarian choices such as sacrificing one to save the many or euthanasia.

The findings suggest that more compassionate people have more of a sense of the sanctity of human life. “The idea that life is sacred may be hard for the reductive, analytic mind to grasp, but it is hardly a primitive or reflexive sentiment” Jack said.

That’s not to say that, given more information, the compassionate will continue to oppose euthanasia. The conundrums were limited in an important way: the test subjects knew nothing about the wishes of the person suffering.

The researchers are continuing their studies. They expect to see a different relationship between compassion and moral judgments about euthanasia when more is understood about the person who is suffering, in particular when continued suffering undermines that person’s life narrative.


Posted on Think by Kevin Mayhood at 01:58 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)

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June 04, 2014

Psychologists find that entitlement predicts sexism, in both men and women


News Release:Wednesday,June 4, 2014


Entitled attitudes appear to be linked to sexism—even among women, according to a personality study by psychologists from Case Western Reserve University and San Diego State University. In general, entitled men are more likely to endorse hostile views of women and entitled women are more likely to endorse views of women as frail and needing extra care.

The researchers found that, for men, entitlement was associated with hostile views of women. Entitled men were more likely to endorse views of women as manipulative, deceptive, and untrustworthy—attitudes, which past research has shown are predictors of violence toward women.

Conversely, the researchers found women who have a high sense of entitlement are likely to demand men take care of them because they are weak and frail. A large body of research shows that such demands lead to women being viewed as too weak and placed in roles where they are not allowed to advance in education and jobs.

The researchers surveyed two groups: 333 college students from an introductory psychology class at a Midwest college and 437 adults participating in Amazon’s Mechanical Turk workforce database, an online database of individuals who often participate in social science research, among other tasks. Both groups included men and women.

The participants responded to questions in an online survey the researchers developed, “Personality, Beliefs, and Behavior,” that explored individuals’ attitudes about how deserving they are of special treatment as well as their openness to new experiences.

Consistent findings in both groups showed that entitlement related to benevolent sexism in women and hostile sexism in men. There were also relationships, to smaller degrees, in the relationships between entitlement and hostile sexism in women and benevolent sexism in men.

Joshua Grubbs, Case Western Reserve University doctoral student and the lead author on the article, “Psychological Entitlement and Ambivalent Sexism: Understanding the Role of Entitlement in Predicting Two Forms of Sexism,” explained the study’s results this spring in the journal the Sex Roles.

He collaborated with co-investigators and professors of psychology Julie Exline, from Case Western Reserve, and Jean Twenge from San Diego State University to understand the personality trait of narcissism.

This study also builds on Twenge’s findings in a 2010 study published in Social Psychological and Personality Science that narcissistic attitudes in the U.S. have increased in recent years. In that prior study, Twenge found that individuals in their 20s were three times more narcissistic than those over the age of 60.

They focused on two forms of sexism (hostile, and benevolent) and how feelings of entitlement might predict those roles differently for men and women.

In general, entitled men were more prone to exhibiting hostile sexism, indicating that they viewed women as manipulative and demanding. In contrast, entitled women exhibited benevolent sexism, indicating that they think women deserve special care and treatment.

“When you consider that entitlement has been shown to be rising across recent generations, linking it to sexist attitudes is particularly alarming,” Grubbs said, “recent events certainly highlight how dangerous entitlement and hostile sexism can be in men. Furthermore, given that benevolent sexism can also produce gender inequality, these findings for women are also concerning.”

He hopes this study adds to the body of research that highlights the dangers of unchecked entitlement and entitled attitudes.

Looking forward, Grubbs said the researchers still have questions that need answers: Is it possible that entitlement could ultimately lead to hostile sexism in women?

“We don’t know that answer now, but we hope to find out,” he said.

The study’s research was partially funded by a seed grant from the American Psychological Association’s Division 36: The Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.


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